A dental examination consists of a direct inspection of the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth assisted by special tests such as x-rays and other diagnostics. This assessment is followed by diagnosis of dental disease, presentation of treatment options, planning, treatment, follow-up and maintenance.

€70 including x rays
If covered by prsi-free

This involves removing plaque (soft, sticky, bacteria infested film) and tartar (calculus) deposits that have built up on the teeth over time. The purpose of a scale and polish is to leave the surfaces of the teeth clean and smooth so that bacteria are less likely to stick to them and it is easier to keep teeth clean during regular home care.

Teeth are continually bathed in saliva which contains calcium and other substances which help strengthen and protect the teeth. While this is a good thing, it also means that teeth tend to get a build-up of calcium deposits. This chalky substance will eventually build up over time, like limescale in a pipe or kettle. Usually it is tooth coloured and can easily be mistaken for part of the teeth, but it also can vary from brown to black in colour. If plaque or calculus is allowed to accumulate on the teeth it will provide the right conditions for bacteria to thrive next to the gums.


Teeth whitening, is a common procedure in general dentistry. Teeth can become stained and discoloured by bacterial pigments, foodstuffs, tobacco and the changes that occur in tooth enamel over time. Tooth whitening can reverse these effects and brighten teeth beyond their original natural colour. Whitening will not change the colours of filling, crowns, veneers or any other artificial substance used for restoring teeth. Whitening can fade over time, patients who have ‘at home’ whitening trays can ‘top up’ by using the whitening procedure again for a short time.Tooth whitening does not damage normal teeth.

Treatment of Gum Disease is principally based around a thorough deep cleaning of the affected teeth, both above and below the gum line. This typically involves taking the mouth one section at a time and numbing the teeth to be cleaned with local anaesthetic before the procedure. Advanced gum disease is a chronic condition which requires ongoing monitoring and treatment as necessary. Prevention through good home care and regular professional monitoring gives the best results.

  • Gum disease, also known as periodontal disease, is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth.
  • It is a serious infections that can lead to tooth loss if left untreated.
  • Gum disease can affect one tooth or, more commonly, many teeth. Gum disease begins when the bacteria in plaque causes the gums to become inflamed.
  • While the main cause of gum disease is bacterial plaque, other factors can also affect the health of your gums. Recent studies indicate that tobacco use is one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of gum disease.
  • Other risk factors that may contribute to gum disease include stress, poor nutrition, clenching or grinding your teeth, diabetes, certain medications, pregnancy and genetics.
  • In the earliest form of gum disease, known as gingivitis, the gums redden, swell and bleed easily but with little or no discomfort. This stage of gum disease is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene, it is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.
  • Untreated gum disease can advance to periodontitis. In this stage plaque and tartar spread and grow below the gum line. As this develops, deep pockets are created and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed.

A dental filling is a dental restorative material used to restore the function and integrity of missing tooth structure. Tooth loss requiring a filling typically results from decay or external trauma. The most commonly used filling materials are Composite (tooth coloured) and Metal (amalgam) each has advantages and disadvantages, there are also other less commonly used materials.

A root canal is the space within the root and top of the tooth which contains nerve tissue. Root canal treatment is a term for a dental operation where the nerve is removed from the tooth and the root canal is then disinfected and filled. This procedure is relatively routine and successful. It is performed for a variety of reasons such as infection, trauma and occasionally as part of a restorative procedure. Following a root canal procedure the tooth will require further treatment such as a filling or crown to restore the tooth structure.

A veneer is a thin layer of restorative material placed over the surface of a tooth, either to improve the look of a tooth, or to protect a damaged tooth surface, or both. There are two main types of material used to fabricate a veneer, dental porcelain and composite resin. A composite veneer may be directly placed (built-up in the mouth), or indirectly fabricated by a dental technician. Porcelain veneers are manufactured in a dental laboratory. They are the most commonly used veneer giving better, more predictable and longer lasting results.

Dental crowns, also known as “caps,” preserve the functionality of damaged teeth. Crowns may be used to protect a cracked tooth, restore a tooth with excessive decay, or replace a pre-existing crown. The purpose of a dental crown is to encase a needy tooth with a custom-designed material. There are usually a variety of conservative treatment options through which to restore teeth.
Ideally these options should be explored and discussed before selecting the option of a crown.

A Bridge (also known as a fixed partial denture) is a dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth or teeth. Artificial teeth are made in a laboratory to fit into a gap and to match the adjacent teeth. They are permanently attached to teeth or implant(s) on either side of the gap.There are different types of bridges, depending on how they are made and the way they anchor to the adjacent teeth. Normally bridges are made by a specialist technician working to instructions provided by the dentist.Preparation for bridgework involves some reduction of the teeth on either side of the missing tooth or teeth. The amount of reduction is decided by factors such as, the type of bridge to be fitted, the cosmetic requirements of each unique situation and the way that the teeth in question come together with the teeth of the opposite jaw. Depending on circumstances old fillings in these teeth may need to be replaced and occasionally teeth may need to have their nerves removed. Bridges can be of several different types which include Porcelain fused to metal, Porcelain only, Metal only. Patients who have bridges must be careful to take care of them as the teeth supporting the bridge can still develop problems such as tooth decay and gum disease.

A dental implant is an artificial tooth root which is placed in bone and is used to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth. (e.g. Crown, Bridge, Denture) Placement of the implant is a minor oral surgical procedure, typically painless. From placement of implant to fitting a final restoration (eg crown, bridge or denture) can take 8-16weeks

Teeth are extracted for a wide variety of reasons. A typical procedure involves administering local anaesthetic in order to numb the relevant part of the mouth, then gently removing the tooth using the most suitable instruments and methods. Occasionally the extraction is more complicated and requires more time and work by the dentist. If the problem is particularly difficult or the patient is apprehensive then the patient can be offered Sedation (‘twilight sleep’) which causes the patient to be considerably relaxed, sleepy and usually with very little or no recollection of the procedure.Reasons for extractions of teeth include.Severe tooth decay or infection. Despite the reduction in world-wide prevalence of dental caries, still it is the most common reason for extraction of teeth accounting for up to two thirds of extractions.

  • Severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth.
  • In preparation for orthodontic treatment ( braces)
  • Extra teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in.
  • Fractured teeth.
  • Insufficient space for wisdom teeth (impacted third molars). Although many dentists remove asymptomatic impacted third molars, American as well as British Health Authorities recommended against this routine procedure, unless there are evidences for disease in the impacted tooth or the near environment.
  • Teeth in a fracture line in the jaw
  • Receiving radiation to the head and neck may require extraction of teeth in the field of radiation.

Third molar teeth (commonly referred to as wisdom teeth) usually appear between the ages of 17 and 25. Most adults have four wisdom teeth, but it is possible to have more or fewer.

If there is insufficient room for a wisdom tooth then it may become impacted or "stuck". This can lead to problems such as infection or damage to the tooth in front. They may also have a role to play in orthodontic problems.

They are often extracted when these problems occur. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent. Extraction of wisdom teeth is not without risk and requires careful pre-operative assessment, including x-rays, which should then be discussed with the patient. In experienced hands these procedures are considered routine. Traditionally significant numbers of these extractions have been done in hospital under general anaesthetic however in experienced hands these procedures can be performed safely in a general dental clinic under IV Sedation.

Dentures are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth and which are supported by surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable. There are many different denture designs, some of which may rely on clasping of teeth or attachment to dental implants to stay in place.

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